How To Predict New Moon | Using Any Space App


How To Predict New Moon | Using Any Space App


There are many apps available in stores to watch the night sky and observe every detail of heaven. You can also calculate the rising and setting time of the celestial objects using these applications or you can identify planets and stars through them. For Prediction of a new moon, I used a complete data-based website named, Fourmilab. It has the collection of all the celestial objects in the sky with their current coordinates.  

CELESTIAL OBJECT: 

Earth’s Moon/ Luna 


DESCRIPTION:

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. 


AGE & FORMATION:

The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body. 


 APPARENT SIZE & ORBITAL ROTATION:

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, and thus always shows the same side to earth, the near side. The Moon's average orbital distance is 384,402 km or 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth. The average orbital speed is 1.022 Km/s. The Moon's apparent size in the sky is almost the same as that of the Sun (because it is 400x farther and larger). Therefore, the Moon covers the Sun nearly precisely during a total solar eclipse. 

LUNAR CYCLES:



SIDEREAL MONTH:

The time it takes the moon to orbit once around the earth with respect to the stars (approximately 27.3 days). 


SYNODIC MONTH: 

The time it takes from new moon to new moon with respect to the Earth (approximately 29.5 days) However, because the Earth is constantly moving along its orbit about the Sun, the Moon must travel slightly more than 360° to get from one new moon to the next. Thus, the synodic month, or lunar month, is longer than the sidereal month. A sidereal month lasts 27.322 days, while a synodic month lasts 29.531 days.


Equatorial Coordinate System 


This is the preferred coordinate system to pinpoint objects on the celestial sphere. Equatorial coordinates are independent of the observer’s location and the time of the observation. This means that only one set of coordinates is required for each object, and that these same coordinates can be used by observers in different locations and at different times.
The equatorial coordinate system is basically the projection of the latitude and longitude coordinate system we use here on Earth, onto the celestial sphere. By direct analogy, lines of latitude become lines of declination (Dec; measured in degrees, arcminutes, and arcseconds) and indicate how far north or south of the celestial equator (defined by projecting the Earth’s equator onto the celestial sphere) the object lies. Lines of longitude have their equivalent in lines of right Ascension (RA), but whereas longitude is measured in degrees, minutes and seconds east the Greenwich meridian, RA is measured in hours, minutes and seconds east from where the celestial equator intersects the ecliptic (the vernal equinox). There are 360°/24h = 15° in one hour of right ascension, 24h of right ascension around the entire celestial equator.


NEW MOON: 

The initial period, as only the thinnest sliver of a Crescent The moon becomes visible, used to be called New Moon. From scale: Comparing the rotation of the moon in Right Ascension and Earth Time. ET 24h = RA 56m ET 1h = RA 2m 16s It means the moon moves 2m 16s (RA) every Earth hour with respect to the celestial sphere. 




BIRTH OF THE NEW MOON: 

Right after the moon passes in front of the sun, the moon begins to be in its birth phase. However, people from the earth cannot observe this phase because the far side of the moon is fully illuminated and the near side is completely dark. 


VISIBILITY OF THE NEW MOON: 

The waxing crescent is said to be the new moon. The higher expectancy to observe the crescent with naked eyes is 20 hours minimum from the birth of the new moon and the difference of 40-50 minutes in the sunset and moonset (Recorded time for Pakistan). However, the weather condition and the visibility duration can make it difficult to see the youngest moon. This new crescent can be observed right after the sunset in the direction of the West. The direction might change slightly due to the axial tilt of the Earth throughout the year from West, Northwest (WNN) to Southwest (WSW).  

Can you identify the planets in the night sky?


Can you identify the planets in the night sky?



If you have never studied astronomy or somehow have little knowledge about up sky heaven, then you are not able to identify planets in the night sky. Have you ever wondered how the planets look like from our Earth? I’m sure you have never noticed the bright shiny object in the sky. It seems to be a star in the night sky. But it is brighter than the usual star can be seen in the below picture.



Let me acknowledge you about some facts by which you can easily differentiate between planets and stars in the night sky.

First of all the general definition of both the object which may everyone know.

The Planets:


A celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star. A planet is a large object such as Jupiter or Earth that orbits a star. Planets are smaller than stars, and they do not produce light. A star and everything which orbits it are called a star system. There are eight planets in our Solar System.

The Stars: 


A huge ball of gas held together by gravity. The central core of a star is extremely hot and produces energy. Some of this energy is released as visible light, which makes the star glow.

How to Distinguish Between stars and Planets in the Night Sky


• One of the easiest ways to Distinguish between stars and planets in the night sky is by looking to see if the object twinkles or shimmers. This can usually be detected with the naked eye if you have a clear view of the sky. 
• Planets rise in the East and set in the West. They tend to follow a similar celestial path across our sky as the sun and moon. 
• Planets are always found along an imaginary belt across the night sky called the ecliptic. This belt is not actually a visible object. The easiest way to find the ecliptic is to note the location and trajectory of the sun and moon in the sky relative to your location on the Earth. The sun's path across our sky is very close to the path of planets along the ecliptic.
• Stars may also appear along ecliptic but Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are significantly brighter than the surrounding stars. This is due to their proximity to the sun since their "brightness" is just reflected sunlight.


Why do stars twinkle?


 Stars do not really twinkle, they just appear to twinkle when seen from the surface of Earth.  Stars are so far away from Earth that, even through large telescopes, they appear only as pinpoints. 
 When starlight enters our atmosphere it is affected by the movement of air in the atmosphere of Earth (atmospheric layers have different temperatures and densities).
This causes the starlight to get slightly bent as it travels from the distant star through the atmosphere down to us on the ground. This means that some of the light reaches us directly and some gets bent slightly away. To our eyes, this makes the star seem to twinkle.

You can clearly observe them from binoculars or a telescope so grab one and enjoy.

Binoculars | How to find a Perfect one.

Binoculars | How to find a Perfect one.



Are you a stargazer or you want to spend your leisure time by observing the sky Binoculars are the best mate for you. The basic purpose of binoculars is to magnify long distant object but people love to watch the sky with them.  Most binoculars are one of the essential gadgets to observe the heavens. It has more benefits over telescopes because they are quite cheap and handy, which is the best thing about binoculars.


So the question is how to select a good binocular, its range, its magnification, reliability, and its lens quality. Here are some good suggestions along with the direct link where you can buy any of them which are suitable for you.
Binoculars are often specified by a set of numbers such as 7×35 or 8×40, the first number indicates the strength of magnification (how many times closer the subject is to you, 5 times closer, 7 times closer, 10 times closer) and the second number is the size of the objective lens measured in millimeters going across.

Bushnell Binoculars


Bushnell PowerView Compact Folding Roof Prism Binocular.


The PowerView series offers the largest line of Bushnell-quality, affordable binoculars. No matter what your purpose, you'll find a variety of magnifications, styles and sizes, and fully-coated optics for bright, vivid images. Bushnell PowerView compact binoculars combine attractive styling and design with traditional Bushnell quality and durability.


Bushnell H2O Waterproof/Fog proof Compact Roof Prism Binocular.


The ultimate on the water watching companions, ever-popular H20 binoculars have been enhanced with a Soft Texture Grip to keep them on board and in your hands in the most challenging conditions. Just as before, they’re O-ring sealed and nitrogen purged to ensure stunning views no matter how wet they get.


Celestron Binoculars


Celestron SkyMaster 12x60 Binoculars.


The SkyMaster series of binoculars have multi-coated optics. Coupled with large objective lenses, BaK-4 prisms offer amazing light gathering capabilities making them ideal for stargazing and other low-light applications. With higher magnifications than standard binoculars, SkyMaster  12x60 brings celestial objects up close, providing images with outstanding detail. View the heavens and the world around you with the SkyMaster Series. 


Celestron SkyMaster Giant 15x70 Binoculars with Tripod Adapter.


Celestron’s SkyMaster Series of large aperture binoculars are a phenomenal value for high-performance binoculars ideal for astronomical viewing or for terrestrial (land) use, especially over long distances. Each SkyMaster model features high-quality BaK-4 prisms and multi-coated optics for enhanced contrast. Celestron has designed and engineered the larger SkyMaster models to meet the special demands of extended astronomical or terrestrial viewing sessions.
Although a small telescope is needed to see Saturn's rings, you can use your binoculars to see Saturn's beautiful golden color.  Some planets are squarely binocular and telescope targets. If you're armed with a finder chart, two of them, Uranus and Neptune, are easy to spot in binoculars.
Here are some more convenient and affordable binoculars for you, try them and enjoy your passion.

Why Eclipses Do Not Occur Every Month?



Why Eclipses Do Not Occur Every Month?


If moon orbit is perfectly aligned with Earth, we get a solar eclipse every new moon and a lunar eclipse every full moon. But we don’t because Moon’s orbit is tilted 5° with respect to Earth.


Eclipse:


"Eclipse is an obscuring of the light from one celestial body by the passage of another between it and the observer, or between it and its source of illumination". 

Phases of The Moon:


The phases of the Moon are caused by its orbital motion

The phases of the Moon occur because light from the Moon is actually reflected sunlight. As the relative positions of the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun change, we see more or less of the illuminated half of the Moon.


Time and the Moon:


Two types of months are used in describing the motion of the Moon. 
1. With respect to the stars, the Moon completes one orbit around the Earth in a sidereal month, averaging 27.32 days. 

2. The Moon completes one cycle of phases (one orbit around the Earth with respect to the Sun) in a synodic month, averaging 29.53 days.


Moon’s Orbit and Ecliptic:


Eclipses occur only when the Sun and Moon are both on the line of nodes. You can understand the line of nodes from this picture clearly. 



Three types of Lunar Eclipses:


Lunar eclipse- caused by the earth’s shadow covering the moon. There are two parts to the shadow- umbra and penumbra. 




Umbras and penumbras are the names for two kinds of regions in a shadow that have different amounts of light in them. An "umbra" is the part of the shadow where all of the light from the source is blocked by the shadowing object. A "penumbra" is that region around the umbra where the shadow is only partial, or imperfect. You get these when the light source is larger than a single point.

Lunar eclipses can be either total, partial, or penumbral, depending on the alignment of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.

Penumbral lunar eclipse the Moon only passes through the penumbra of Earth’s shadow. Partial lunar eclipse part of the Moon passes through the umbra of Earth’s shadow. Total lunar eclipse the entire Moon passes through the umbra of Earth’s shadow. Can last for nearly for two hours. 

Use these gadgets to enjoy Astronomy!

Do you know the reason for Solar Eclipse?


Do you know the reason for Solar Eclipse?


Many of us don't know how the Eclipses occur so here is the detail of Solar Eclipse.

Solar Eclipse caused by the moon making a small shadow on the Earth. Solar eclipses can be either total, partial, or annular, depending on the alignment of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. 



Remember that it is not safe to stare at a solar eclipse! Try these gadgets for safety.


Total and Partial Solar Eclipse:

The moon creates a small shadow which Only allows certain areas of the earth to see a total solar eclipse. 
Observers in the “umbra” shadow see a total eclipse (safe to view the Sun). They can see the corona and those who are in “penumbra” see a partial eclipse which is not safe to look directly on Sun. Total Solar Eclipse lasts for a few minutes. You can understand the terms "Umbra" and "Penumbra" in the below picture.



The Path of Totality is the area covered by the shadow of the moon about which is about 10,000 miles long and only 100 miles wide 

Annular Solar Eclipse:

When the Moon is too far to completely cover the Sun the umbra doesn’t reach the Earth. Sun appears as a donut around the Moon.



The apparent size of an object in the sky depends on how big it is and how far away it is. When the moon is close to the Earth, is called Perigee and when the moon is far away from Earth, is called Apogee. 
The sun is about 400 times wider than the moon, surprisingly on average, it is 400 farther than Moon. So, being these number equals the Sun and Moon appear to about the same size in the sky. 

Cause of Lunar Eclipse will be soon here so stay tuned!